I finally broke down and organized my stash--it outgrew its plastic bin (shocker, right?). It took me awhile to decide on how to go about doing this, but I finally picked the following solution:
I got the unit at Target (its one of their ClosetMaid Cubeicals) for about $40. The little fabric-y cubes that go in it were on sale for $5.99 each, so all-in-all it cost me about $90. I originally wanted a cheaper solution, but ended up liking the look of this, plus it gives me a little room to grow (I've only used 7 of the 9 cubes).
Unfortunately the cubes don't have a place for labels, and sticky mailing labels wouldn't stay, so I had to be crafty and make my own. I used black and teal glitter scrapbook paper as a background and glued pieces of white cardstock labels onto them (I organized by weight). I had read elsewhere on the internet that you could use Velcro sticky dots to stick labels to the bins, but I still couldn't get mine to stick, so I placed a strip of stick-on Velcro on the cubes so the labels would stay. I like the Velcro plan, as now I can change them if I need to, and they also look pretty!
My bin of fingering weight.
I also managed to organize a lot of my loose knitting patterns, printed off a bunch more and stuck them all in a binder (you can see it on top of the unit in the first photo). I also started a Finished Objects binder, where I'll stick the copies of patterns I've written on, notes on the project, etc. I considered filling out a little project page (listing needle size, yarn used, etc.,) but I decided to wait and see if Ravelry eventually lets us print off or project pages (apparently its on their "things to do" list).